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Despite their differences, the two systems allow comparison for statistical purposes.Pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) with a daily dose of the medications tenofovir, with or without emtricitabine, is effective in a number of groups including men who have sex with men, couples where one is HIV positive, and young heterosexuals in Africa.They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons.HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission).It is also linked to the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4 The CDC's classification system is more frequently adopted in developed countries.Since the WHO's staging system does not require laboratory tests, it is suited to the resource-restricted conditions encountered in developing countries, where it can also be used to help guide clinical management.If a woman is untreated, two years of breastfeeding results in an HIV/AIDS risk in her baby of about 17%. Due to the increased risk of death without breastfeeding in many areas in the developing world, the World Health Organization recommends either: (1) the mother and baby being treated with antiretroviral medication while breastfeeding being continued (2) the provision of safe formula.Lentiviruses share many morphological and biological characteristics.
Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection.
The risk of acquiring HIV from a needle stick from an HIV-infected person is estimated as 0.3% (about 1 in 333) per act and the risk following mucous membrane exposure to infected blood as 0.09% (about 1 in 1000) per act.
Preventive treatment involves the mother taking antiretrovirals during pregnancy and delivery, an elective caesarean section, avoiding breastfeeding, and administering antiretroviral drugs to the newborn.
Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.
Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses.
In low-income countries, the risk of female-to-male transmission is estimated as 0.38% per act, and of male-to-female transmission as 0.30% per act; the equivalent estimates for high-income countries are 0.04% per act for female-to-male transmission, and 0.08% per act for male-to-female transmission.