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The period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across mathematics, physics, astronomy, and biology in institutions supporting scientific investigation and in the more widely held picture of the universe.The scientific revolution led to the establishment of several modern sciences."Few revolutions in science have immediately excited so much general notice as the introduction of the theory of oxygen ...Lavoisier saw his theory accepted by all the most eminent men of his time, and established over a great part of Europe within a few years from its first promulgation." In the 19th century, William Whewell described the revolution in science itself—the scientific method—that had taken place in the 15th–16th century.For instance, although intimations of the concept of inertia are suggested sporadically in ancient discussion of motion, Under the scientific method as conceived in the 17th century, natural and artificial circumstances were set aside as a research tradition of systematic experimentation was slowly accepted by the scientific community.The philosophy of using an inductive approach to obtain knowledge — to abandon assumption and to attempt to observe with an open mind — was in contrast with the earlier, Aristotelian approach of deduction, by which analysis of known facts produced further understanding.
historians of science have long known that religious factors played a significantly positive role in the emergence and persistence of modern science in the West.It is important to note that ancient precedent existed for alternative theories and developments which prefigured later discoveries in the area of physics and mechanics; but in light of the limited number of works to survive translation in a period when many books were lost to warfare, such developments remained obscure for centuries and are traditionally held to have had little effect on the re-discovery of such phenomena; whereas the invention of the printing press made the wide dissemination of such incremental advances of knowledge commonplace.